Indus Valley Civilization : Economic activities

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Agriculture: Agriculture was the main occupation of the Indus Valley people. Crops such as wheat, barley, peas and bananas were raised. In the olden days, there was enough rain in that region and occasional floods brought a great deal of fertile soil to the area. People used to plough the land with wooden ploughshares drawn by men and oxen. From the existence of granaries it is concluded that there were surplus food-grains.

Domestication of Animals: The people of Harappa domesticated animals like oxen, buffaloes, pigs, goats and sheep. Camels and asses were used as means of transport. Dogs and cats were kept as pets. The humped bull was considered a great asset in the farming community. Crafts The discovery of spindles at the sites of Harappan culture shows that the people used to spin and weave. Goldsmiths made jewellery of gold, silver and precious stones. People were also engaged in brick-laying and in the art of sculpture. The making of seals was developed during this period. Bronze-smiths made various types of weapons and tools such as knives, spears, saws and axes which were used in daily life.

Trade: Traders carried on trade in the country as well as with other countries like Egypt, Babylon and Afghanistan. Many seals of Harappa found in Mesopotamia show that trade existed between the two countries. The seals were made of terracotta and were used by merchants to stamp their goods.

The people of the Indus Valley used weights and measures in their business transactions. They used 16 and its multiplies: 64, 160 and 320, in measurement and weight.

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